Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines,
By Nyanatiloka Mahathera
cāga: ‘liberality’, is one of the ‘blessings’ (s. sampadā), ‘foundations’ (s. adhiṭṭhāna), ‘recollections’ (s. anussati), ‘treasures’ (s. dhana ).
cakka: ‘wheel’, is one of the seven ‘precious possessions’ (ratana) of a righteous World Emperor (cakkavatti: ‘He who owns the Wheel,’ cf. D. 26), and symbolizes conquering progress and expanding sovereignty. From that derives the figurative expression dhammacakkaṃ pavatteti, ‘he sets rolling the Wheel of the Law’ and the name of the Buddha’s first sermon, Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta(s. dhamma-cakka).
Another figurative meaning of C. is ‘blessing’. There are 4 such ‘auspicious wheels’ or ‘blessings’: living in a suitable locality, company of good people, meritorious acts done in the past, right inclinations (A. IV, 31).
Bhava-cakka, ‘wheel of existence’, or of life, is a name for ‘dependent origination’ (s. paṭiccasamuppāda).
See The Buddhist Wheel Symbol, by T. B. Karuṇaratane (WHEEL 137/138); The Wheel of Birth and Death, by Bhikkhu Khantipālo (WHEEL 147/149)
cakkh’ āyatana: ‘the base “visual organ” ‘ (s. āyatana).
cakkhu: ‘eye’ s. āyatana. – The foll. 5 kinds of ‘eyes’ are mentioned and explained in CNid. (PTS, p. 235; the first 3 also in It. 52): 1. the physical eye (mamsa cakkhu), 2. the divine eye (dibba-cakkhu; s. abhiññā), 3. the eye of wisdom (paññā-cakkhu), 4 the eye of a Buddha (Buddha-cakkhu), 5. the eye of all-round knowledge (samanta-cakkhu; a frequent appellation of the Buddha).
cakkhu-dhātu: ‘the element “visual organ” ‘(s. dhātu).
cakkhu-viññāṇa: ‘eye-consciousness’ (s. viññāṇa).
cankers: s. āsava.
caraṇa: s. vijjā-caraṇa.
carita: ‘nature, character’. In Vis.M. III there are explained six types of men: the greedy-natured (rāga-carita), the hate-natured (dosa-carita), the stupid or dull-natured (moha-carita), the faithful-natured (saddhā-carita), the intelligent-natured (buddhi-carita), the ruminating-natured (vitakka-carita). – (App.).
cāritta- and vāritta-sīla: ‘morality consisting in performance and morality consisting in avoidance,’ means “the performance of those moral rules which the Blessed one has ordained to be followed, and the avoidance of those things that the Blessed One has rejected as not to be followed” (Vis.M. III). – (App.).
catu-dhātu-vavatthāna: ‘analysis of the four elements’; s. dhātu-vavatthāna.
catu-mahārājika-deva: a class of heavenly beings of the sensuous sphere; s. deva.
catu-pārisuddhi-sīla: s. sīla.
catu-vokāra-bhava: ‘four-group existence’, is the existence in the immaterial world (arūpa-loka; s. loka), since only the four mental groups (feeling, perception, mental formations, consciousness, s. khandha) are found there, the corporeality group being absent. Cf. pañca-vokāra-bhava, eka-vokāra-bhava. (App.: vokāra).
cause: cf. paccaya (1). – For the five c. of existence, s. paṭiccasamuppāda (10).