Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines,
By Nyanatiloka Mahathera
anabhijjhā: ‘freedom from covetousness’, unselfishness; s. kammapatha (II. 8).
anabhirati-saññā: s. sabba-loke anabhirati-s.
Anāgāmī: the ‘Non-Returner’, is a noble disciple (ariya-puggala, q.v.) on the 3rd stage of holiness. There are 5 classes of Non-returners, as it is said (e.g. Pug. 42-46):
“A being, through the disappearing of the 5 lower fetters (saṃyojana, q.v.), reappears in a higher world (amongst the devas of the Pure Abodes, Suddhāvāsa , q.v.), and without returning from that world (into the Sensuous Sphere) he there reaches Nibbāna.
(1) “He may, immediately after appearing there (in the Pure Abodes) or without having gone beyond half of the life-time, attain the holy path for the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is called ‘one who reaches Nibbāna within the first half of the life’ (antarā-parinibbāyī).
(2) “Or, whilst living beyond half of the lifetime, or at the moment of death, he attains the holy path for the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is called ‘one who reaches Nibbāna after crossing half the life-time’ (upahacca-parinibbāyī).
(3) “Or, with exertion he attains the holy path for the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is called ‘one who reaches Nibbāna with exertion’ (sasaṅkhāra-parinibbāyī).
(4) “Or, without exertion he attains the holy path for the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is called ‘one who reaches Nibbāna without exertion’ (asaṅkhāra-parinibbāyī).
(5) “Or, after vanishing from the heaven of the Aviha-gods (s. Suddhāvāsa ), he appears in the heaven of the unworried (atappa) gods. After vanishing from there he appears in the heaven of the clearly-visible (Sudassa) gods, from there in the heaven of the clear-visioned (Sudassī) gods, from there in the heaven of the highest (akaniṭṭha) gods. There he attains the holy path for the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is called ‘one who passes up-stream to the highest gods’ (uddhamsota-akaniṭṭha-gāmī).”
analysis of the 4 elements: dhātu-vavatthāna (q.v.).
analytical doctrine: vibhajja-vāda (q.v.).
analytical knowledge, the 4 kinds of: paṭisambhidā (q.v.).
anaññātañ-ñassāmīt’indriya: is one of the 3 supermundane senses or faculties; s. indriya (20).
anantara-paccaya: ‘proximity’, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
ānantarika-kamma: the 5 heinous ‘actions with immediate destiny’ are: parricide, matricide, killing an Arahat (Saint), wounding a Buddha, creating schism in the monks’ Order. In A.V., 129 it is said:
“There are 5 irascible and incurable men destined to the lower world and to hell, namely: the parricide,” etc. About the 5th see A. X., 35, 38. With regard to the first crime, it is said in D. 2 that if King Ajātasattu had not deprived his father of life, he would have reached entrance into the path of Stream-entry (App.).
ānantariya: the ‘Immediacy’, is a name for that concentration of mind which is associated with such insight (vipassanā, q.v.) as is present in any one of the 4 kinds of supermundane path consciousness (s. ariya-puggala), and which therefore is the cause of the immediately following consciousness as its result or ‘fruition’ (phala, q.v.). According to the Abhidhamma, the path (of the Sotāpanna, etc.) is generated by the insight into the impermanence, misery and impersonality of existence, flashing up at that very moment and transforming and ennobling one’s nature forever.
It is mentioned under the name of ānantarika-samādhi in the Ratana Sutta (Sn. v. 22) and in Pts.M. 1, Ñāṇakathā.
ānāpāna-sati: ‘mindfulness on in-and-out-breathing’, is one of the most important exercises for reaching mental concentration and the 4 absorptions (jhāna, q.v.).
In the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (M. 10, D. 22) and elsewhere, 4 methods of practice are given, which may also serve as basis for insight meditation. The ‘Discourse on Mindfulness of Breathing’ (Ānāpānasati Sutta, M. 118) and other texts have 16 methods of practice, which divide into 4 groups of four. The first three apply to both tranquillity (samatha, q.v.) and insight-meditation, while the fourth refers to pure insight practice only. The second and the third group require the attainment of the absorptions.
“With attentive mind he breathes in, with attentive mind he breathes out.
I. (1) “When making a long inhalation he knows: ‘I make a long inhalation’; when making a long exhalation he knows: ‘I make a long exhalation.’
(2) “When making a short inhalation he knows: ‘I make a short inhalation’; when making a short exhalation he knows: ‘I make a short exhalation.’
(3) ” ‘Clearly perceiving the entire (breath-) body I will breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘clearly perceiving the entire (breath-) body I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.
(4) ” ‘Calming this bodily function I will breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘calming this bodily function I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.
II. (5) ” ‘Feeling rapture (pīti) I will breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘feeling rapture I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.
(6) ” ‘Feeling joy I will breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘feeling joy I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.
(7) ” ‘Feeling the mental formation (citta-saṅkhāra) I will breathe in,’ thus he trains himself, ‘feeling the mental formation I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.
(8) ” ‘Calming the mental formation I will breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘calming the mental formation I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.
III. (9) ” ‘Clearly perceiving the mind (citta) I will breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘clearly perceiving the mind I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.
(10) ” ‘Gladdening the mind I will breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘gladdening the mind I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.
(11) ” ‘Concentrating the mind I will breathe in, thus he trains himself; ‘concentrating the mind I will breathe out’, thus he trains himself.
(12) ” ‘Freeing the mind I will breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘freeing the mind I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself
IV. (13) ” ‘Reflecting on impermanence (anicca) I will breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘reflecting on impermanence I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.
(14) ” ‘Reflecting on detachment (virāga) I will breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘reflecting on detachment I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.
(15) ” ‘Reflecting on extinction (nirodha) I will breathe in,’ thus he trains himself; ‘reflecting on extinction I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.
(16) ” ‘Reflecting on abandonment (paṭinissaggānupassanā) I will breathe in, thus he trains himself; ‘reflecting on abandonment I will breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.”
In M 118 it is further shown how these 16 exercises bring about the 4 foundations of mindfulness (Satipaṭṭhāna, q.v.), namely: 1-4 contemplation of the body, 5-8 contemplation of feeling, 9-12 contemplation of mind (consciousness), 13-16 contemplation of mind-objects. Then it is shown how these 4 foundations of mindfulness bring about the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhaṅga, q.v.); then these again deliverance of mind (ceto-vimutti, q.v.) and deliverance through wisdom (paññā-vimutti, q.v.).
Literature: Ānāpānasati Saṃyutta (S. LIV). – Pts.M. Ānāpānakathā – Full explanation of practice in Vis.M. VIII, 145ff. – For a comprehensive anthology of canonical and commentarial texts, see Mindfulness of Breathing, Ñāṇamoli Thera (Kandy: BPS, 1964).
anattā: ‘not-self’, non-ego, egolessness, impersonality, is the last of the three characteristics of existence (ti-lakkhaṇa, q.v.) The anattā doctrine teaches that neither within the bodily and mental phenomena of existence, nor outside of them, can be found anything that in the ultimate sense could be regarded as a self-existing real ego-entity, soul or any other abiding substance. This is the central doctrine of Buddhism, without understanding which a real knowledge of Buddhism is altogether impossible. It is the only really specific Buddhist doctrine, with which the entire Structure of the Buddhist teaching stands or falls. All the remaining Buddhist doctrines may, more or less, be found in other philosophic systems and religions, but the anattā-doctrine has been clearly and unreservedly taught only by the Buddha, wherefore the Buddha is known as the anattā-vādi, or ‘Teacher of Impersonality’. Whosoever has not penetrated this impersonality of all existence, and does not comprehend that in reality there exists only this continually self-consuming process of arising and passing bodily and mental phenomena, and that there is no separate ego-entity within or without this process, he will not be able to understand Buddhism, i.e. the teaching of the 4 Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.), in the right light. He will think that it is his ego, his personality, that experiences suffering, his personality that performs good and evil actions and will be reborn according to these actions, his personality that will enter into Nibbāna, his personality that walks on the Eightfold Path. Thus it is said in Vis.M. XVI:
“Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found;
The deeds are, but no doer of the deeds is there;
Nibbāna is, but not the man that enters it;
The path is, but no traveler on it is seen.”
“Whosoever is not clear with regard to the conditionally arisen phenomena, and does not comprehend that all the actions are conditioned through ignorance, etc., he thinks that it is an ego that understands or does not understand, that acts or causes to act, that comes to existence at rebirth …. that has the sense-impression, that feels, desires, becomes attached, continues and at rebirth again enters a new existence” (Vis.M. XVII, 117).
While in the case of the first two characteristics it is stated that all formations (sabbe saṅkhārā) are impermanent and subject to suffering, the corresponding text for the third characteristic states that “all things are not-self” (sabbe dhammā anattā; M. 35, Dhp. 279). This is for emphasizing that the false view of an abiding self or substance is neither applicable to any ‘formation’ or conditioned phenomenon, nor to Nibbāna, the Unconditioned Element (asaṅkhatā dhātu).
The Anattā-lakkhaṇa Sutta, the ‘Discourse on the Characteristic of Not-self’, was the second discourse after Enlightenment, preached by the Buddha to his first five disciples, who after hearing it attained to perfect Holiness (Arahatta).
The contemplation of not-self (anattānupassanā) leads to the emptiness liberation (suññatā-vimokkha, s. vimokkha). Herein the faculty of wisdom (paññindriya) is outstanding, and one who attains in that way the path of Stream-entry is called a Dhamma-devotee (dhammānusāri; s. ariya-puggala); at the next two stages of sainthood he becomes a vision-attainer (diṭṭhippatta); and at the highest stage, i.e. Holiness, he is called ‘liberated by wisdom’ (paññā-vimutta).
For further details, see paramattha-sacca, paṭiccasamuppāda, khandha, ti-lakkhaṇa, nāma-rūpa, paṭisandhi.
Literature: Anattā-lakkhaṇa Sutta, Vinaya I, 13-14; S. XXII, 59; tr. in Three Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha (WHEEL 17). – Another important text on Anattā is the Discourse on the Snake Simile (Alagaddūpama Sutta, M. 22; tr. in WHEEL 48/49) . Other texts in “Path”. – Further: Anattā and Nibbāna, by Ñāṇaponika Thera (WHEEL 11); The Truth of Anattā, by Dr. G. P. Malalasekera (WHEEL 94); The Three Basic Facts of Existence III: Egolessness (WHEEL 202/204)
anattānupassanā: ‘contemplation of not-self’ is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (s. vipassanā). See also above.
anattā-saññā: ‘perception of not-self’; see A. VI, 104; A. VII, 48; A.X, 60; Ud. IV, 1.
anattā-vāda: the ‘doctrine of impersonality’; s. anattā.
āneñja: ‘imperturbability’, denotes the immaterial sphere (arūpāvacara; s. avacara); s. saṅkhāra. cf. M. 106.
anger: s. mūla.
anicca: ‘impermanent’ (or, as abstract noun, aniccatā, ‘impermanence’) is the first of the three characteristics of existence (tilakkhaṇa, q.v.). It is from the fact of impermanence that, in most texts, the other two characteristics, suffering (dukkha) and not-self (anattā), are derived (S. XXII, 15; Ud. IV, I)
“Impermanence of things is the rising, passing and changing of things, or the disappearance of things that have become or arisen. The meaning is that these things never persist in the same way, but that they are vanishing dissolving from moment to moment” (Vis.M. VII, 3).
Impermanence is a basic feature of all conditioned phenomena, be they material or mental, coarse or subtle, one’s own or external: “All formations are impermanent” (sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā; M 35, Dhp. 277). That the totality of existence is impermanent is also often stated in terms of the five aggregates (khandha, q.v.), the twelve personal and external sense bases (āyatana q.v.), etc. Only Nibbāna (q.v.), which is unconditioned and not a formation (asaṅkhata), is permanent (nicca, dhuva).
The insight leading to the first stage of deliverance, Stream-entry (Sotāpatti; s. ariya-puggala), is often expressed in terms of impermanence: “Whatever is subject to origination, is subject to cessation” (s. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, S. XLVI, 11). In his last exhortation, before his Parinibbāna, the Buddha reminded his monks of the impermanence of existence as a spur to earnest effort: “Behold now, Bhikkhus, I exhort you: Formations are bound to vanish. Strive earnestly!” (vayadhammā saṅkhārā, appamādena sampādetha; D. 16).
Without the deep insight into the impermanence and insubstantiality of all phenomena of existence there is no attainment of deliverance. Hence comprehension of impermanence gained by direct meditative experience heads two lists of insight knowledge: (a) contemplation of impermanence (aniccānupassanā) is the first of the 18 chief kinds of insight (q.v.); (b) the contemplation of arising and vanishing (udayabbayānupassanā-ñāṇa) is the first of 9 kinds of knowledge which lead to the ‘purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress’ (s. visuddhi, VI). – Contemplation of impermanence leads to the conditionless deliverance (animitta -vimokkha; s. vimokkha). As herein the faculty of confidence (saddhindriya) is outstanding, he who attains in that way the path of Stream-entry is called a faith-devotee (saddhānusārī; s. ariya-puggala) and at the seven higher stages he is called faith-liberated (saddhā-vimutta), – See also anicca-saññā.
See The Three Basic Facts of Existence I: Impermanence (WHEEL 186/187)
aniccānupassanā: ‘contemplation of impermanence’, is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (s. vipassanā).
anicca-saññā: ‘perception of impermanence’, is defined in the Girimānanda Sutta (A.X. 60) as meditation on the impermanence of the five groups of existence.
“Though, with a faithful heart, one takes refuge in the Buddha, his Teaching and the Community of Monks; or with a faithful heart observes the rules of morality, or develops a mind full of loving-kindness, far more meritorious it is if one cultivates the perception of impermanence, be it only for a moment” (A.X. 20).
See A. VI, 102; A. VII, 48; Ud. IV, 1; S. XXII, 102.
animitta -ceto-vimutti: s. ceto-vimutti.
animittānupassanā: s. vipassanā.
animitta -vimokkha: s. vimokkha.
añña: ‘other’, being of the opposite category.
aññā: ‘highest knowledge’, gnosis, refers to the perfect knowledge of the Saint (Arahat; s. ariya-puggala). The following passage occurs frequently in the Suttas , when a monk indicates his attainment of Holiness (Arahatta): “He makes known highest knowledge (aññaṃ byākaroti), thus: ‘Rebirth has ceased, fulfilled is the holy life, the task is accomplished, and there is no more of this to come.’ ”
The ‘faculty of highest knowledge’ (aññindriya = aññā-indriya; s. indriya), however, is present in six of the eight stages of holiness, that is, beginning with the fruition of Stream-Winning (Sotāpatti-phala) up to the path of Holiness (Arahatta-magga). See Dhs. (PTS) 362-364, 505, 553; Indriya Vibhaṅga; “Path” 162.
aññāmañña-paccaya: ‘mutuality-condition,’ is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
aññātāvindriya: ‘the faculty of one who knows’; s. indriya, 22.
aññindriya: ‘the faculty of highest knowledge’; s. aññā and indriya, 21.
anottappa: s. ahirika .
answering questions: 4 ways of: s. pañhā-byākaraṇa.
antarā-parinibbāyī: is one of the 5 kinds of Non-Returners or Anāgāmī (q.v.).
antinomies: s. diṭṭhi.
anuloma-citta: ‘adaptation-moment of consciousness’, denotes the third of the 4 moments of impulsion (javana, q.v.) flashing up immediately before either reaching the absorptions (jhāna, q.v.) or the supermundane paths (s. ariya-puggala). These 4 moments of impulsion are: the preparation (parikamma), access (upacāra), adaptation (anuloma) and maturity (gotrabhū) moments. For further details, s. javana, gotrabhū.
anuloma-ñāṇa: ‘adaptation-knowledge’ or conformity-knowledge, is identical with the ‘adaptation-to-truth knowledge’, the last of 9 insight-knowledges (vipassanā-ñāṇa) which constitute the purification of knowledge and vision of the path-progress’ (s. visuddhi VI, 9). Cf. Vis.M. XXI.
anupādisesa-Nibbāna: see Nibbāna, upādi.
anupassanā: ‘contemplation’ – 4 fold: s. Satipaṭṭhāna- 18 fold: s. vipassanā. – 7 fold: “The seven contemplation’s: (1) Contemplating (formations) as impermanent, one abandons the perception of permanence. (2) Contemplating (them) as painful, one abandons the perception of happiness (to be found in them). (3) Contemplating (them) as not self, one abandons the perception of self. (4) Becoming dispassionate, one abandons delighting. (5) Causing fading away, one abandons greed. (6) Causing cessation, one abandons originating. (7) Relinquishing, one abandons grasping” (Pts.M. I, p. 58). – See also Vis.M. XXI, 43; XXII, 114.
anupubba-nirodha: The 9 ‘successive extinctions’, are the 8 extinctions reached through the 8 absorptions (jhāna, q.v.) and the extinction of feeling and perception’ (s. nirodha-samāpatti), as it is said in A. IX, 31 and D. 33:
“In him who has entered the 1st absorption, the sensuous perceptions (kāma-saññā) are extinguished. Having entered the 2nd absorption, thought-conception and discursive thinking (vitakkavicāra, q.v.) are extinguished. Having entered the 3rd absorption, rapture (pīti, q.v.) is extinguished. Having entered the 4th absorption, in-and-out breathing (assāsa-passāsa, q.v.) are extinguished. Having entered the sphere of boundless space (ākāsānañcāyatana), the corporeality perceptions (rūpa-saññā) are extinguished. Having entered the sphere of boundless consciousness (viññāṇañcāyatana), the perception of the sphere of boundless space is extinguished. Having entered the sphere of nothingness (ākiñcaññāyatana), the perception of the sphere of boundless consciousness is extinguished. Having entered the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception (neva-saññā-nāsaññāyatana) the perception of the sphere of nothingness is extinguished. Having entered the extinction of perception and feeling (saññāvedayitanirodha) perception and feeling are extinguished.” For further details, s. jhāna, nirodha-samāpatti.
anupubba-vihāra: the 9 ‘successive abodes’, are identical with the 9 anupubba-nirodha (s. above). In A. IX, 33 they are called successive attainments (anupubba-samāpatti).
ānupubbī-kathā: ‘gradual instruction’, progressive sermon; given by the Buddha when it was necessary to prepare first the listener’s mind before speaking to him on the advanced teaching of the Four Noble Truths. The stock passage (e.g. D. 3; D 14; M. 56) runs as follows:
“Then the Blessed One gave him a gradual instruction – that is to say, he spoke on liberality (‘giving’, dāna, q.v.), on moral conduct (sīla) and on the heaven (sagga); he explained the peril, the vanity and the depravity of sensual pleasures, and the advantage of renunciation. When the Blessed One perceived that the listener’s mind was prepared, pliant, free from obstacles, elevated and lucid; then he explained to him that exalted teaching particular to the Buddhas (buddhānaṃ sāmukkaṃsikadesanā), that is: suffering, its cause, its ceasing, and the path.”
anurakkhaṇa-padhāna: the ‘effort to maintain’ wholesome states; s. padhāna.
anusaya: the 7 ‘proclivities’, inclinations, or tendencies are: sensuous greed (kāma-rāga, s. saṃyojana), grudge (paṭigha), speculative opinion (diṭṭhi, q.v.), skeptical doubt (vicikicchā , q.v.), conceit (māna, q.v.), craving for continued existence (bhavarāga), ignorance (avijjā, q.v.) (D. 33; A. VII, 11, 12).
“These things are called ‘proclivities’ since, in consequence of their pertinacity, they ever and again tend to become the conditions for the arising of ever new sensuous greed, etc.” (Vis.M. XXII, 60).
Yam. VII, first determines in which beings such and such proclivities exist, and which proclivities, and with regard to what, and in which sphere of existence. Thereafter it gives an explanation concerning their overcoming, their penetration, etc. Cf. Guide VI (vii). According to Kath. several ancient Buddhist schools erroneously held the opinion that the anusayas, as such, meant merely latent, hence kammically neutral qualities, which however Contradicts the Theravāda conception. Cf. Guide V, 88, 108, 139.
anussati: ‘recollection’, meditation, contemplation. The six recollections often described in the Suttas (e.g. A. VI, 10, 25; D. 33) are: (1) recollection of the Buddha, (2) his Doctrine, (3) his Community of noble disciples, (4) of morality, (5) liberality, (6) heavenly beings (buddhānussati, dhammānussati, saṃghānussati, sīlānussati, cāgānussati, devatānussati).
(1) “The noble disciple, Mahānāma, recollects thus: ‘This Blessed One is holy, a fully Enlightened One, perfected in wisdom and conduct, faring happily, knower of the worlds, unsurpassed leader of men to be trained, teacher of heavenly beings and men, a Buddha, a Blessed One.’
(2) ‘Well proclaimed by the Blessed One is the Doctrine (Dhamma), directly visible, with immediate fruit, inviting investigation, leading on to Nibbāna, to be comprehended by the wise, each by himself.’
(3) ‘Of good conduct is the Community (Saṃgha) of the Blessed One’s disciples, of upright conduct, living on the right path, performing their duties, to wit: the 4 pairs of men or 8 individuals (s. ariya puggala). This Community of the Blessed One’s disciples is worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy of reverence with raised hands, the unsurpassed field for doing meritorious deeds.’
(4) “The noble disciple further recollects his own morality (sīla) which is unbroken, without any breach, undefiled, untarnished, conducive to liberation, praised by the wise, not dependent (on craving or opinions), leading to concentration.
(5) “The noble disciple further recollects his own liberality (cāga) thus: ‘Blessed truly am I, highly blessed am I who, amongst beings defiled with the filth of stinginess, live with heart free from stinginess, liberal, open-handed, rejoicing in giving, ready to give anything asked for, glad to give and share with others.’
(6) “The noble disciple further recollects the heavenly beings (devatā): ‘There are the heavenly beings of the retinue of the Four Great Kings, the heavenly beings of the World of the Thirty-Three, the Yāmadevas … and there are heavenly beings besides (s. deva). Such faith, such morality, such knowledge, such liberality, such insight, possessed of which those heavenly beings, after vanishing from here, are reborn in those worlds, such things are also found in me.’ ” (A. III,70; VI,10; XI,12).
“At the time when the noble disciple recollects the Perfect One … at such a time his mind is neither possessed of greed, nor of hate, nor of delusion. Quite upright at such a time is his mind owing to the Perfect One … With upright mind the noble disciple attains understanding of the sense, understanding of the law, attains joy through the law. In the joyous one rapture arises. With heart enraptured, his whole being becomes stilled. Stilled within his being, he feels happiness; and the mind of the happy one becomes firm. Of this noble disciple it is said that amongst those gone astray, he walks on the right path, among those suffering he abides free from suffering. Thus having reached the stream of the law, he develops the recollection of the Enlightened One….” (A. VI, 10).
In A. I, 21 (PTS: I, xvi) and A. I, 27 (PTS: xx. 2) another 4 Recollections are added: Mindfulness on Death (maraṇa-sati, q.v.), on the Body (kāyagatā-sati, q.v.), on Breathing (ānāpāna-sati, q.v.), and the Recollection of Peace (upasamānussati, q.v.).
The first six recollections are fully explained in Vis.M. VII, the latter four in Vis.M. VIII.